Article of the Week #6

Updated: Apr 2, 2019

哪4种学生最容易进哈佛?

Getting Into Harvard Is Hard. Here Are 4 Ways Applicants Get an Edge.



For three weeks in October, Harvard’s admissions system was on trial before an often standing-room-only crowd in a federal courtroom in Boston. Harvard was accused of discriminating against Asian-American applicants, but the university firmly denied this throughout the trial, which ended last week.


在10月份的三个星期里,哈佛大学的招生系统在波士顿联邦法庭接受审判,审判厅总是挤得水泄不通。哈佛大学被指控歧视亚裔申请人,但在上周结束的整个审判中,该校一直坚决否认这一点。

哈佛 hā fó Harvard

招生 zhāo shēng To enroll new students

系统 xì tǒng System

波士顿 bō shì dùn Boston

联邦 lián bāng Federal

法庭 fǎ tíng Courtroom

审判 shěn pàn Trial; to try somebody

挤 jǐ To crowd in; to cram

水泄不通 shuǐ xiè bù tōng Impenetrable

指控 zhǐ kòng To accuse

歧视 qí shì To discriminate against

亚裔 yà yì Of Asian descent

申请人 shēn qǐng rén Applicant

坚决 jiān jué Resolutely

否认 fǒu rèn To deny






Through testimony and internal documents, the case provided an eye-opening look into the often guarded and opaque admissions process at Harvard. With some 40,000 applicants and about 1,600 available seats, Harvard argued, some students would inevitably be left out.


通过证词和内部文件,该案件让人大开眼界,了解哈佛大学那些经常保密且不透明的录取过程。哈佛大学认为,有大约4万名申请者,而入学名额只有1600个,一些学生将不可避免地被排除在外。

证词 zhèng cí Testimony

内部 nèi bù Internal

文件 wén jiàn Documents

案件 àn jiàn Case

大开眼界 dà kāi yǎn jiè Eye-opening

保密 bǎo mì To keep sth. confidential

透明 tòu míng Transparent

录取 lù qǔ Admissions; to admit (a student)

过程 guò chéng Process

名额 míng é Quota; number of places

不可避免 bù kě bì miǎn Inevitably

排除 pái chú To exclude; to be left out






How admissions officers went about that sifting process seemed to some in the gallery like an exercise in cynicism, which perpetuated the established ruling class, and to others like a noble pursuit, which lifted “diamonds in the rough,” of all backgrounds, into the future elite. Here’s what we learned about who gets an admissions edge: ALDC


旁听席上的许多人认为,录取官员以一种玩世不恭的态度进行筛选过程,使得现有的统治阶级长期延续下去,也有人认为他们在追求一种崇高的行为,将各种背景中的“粗糙钻石”提升为未来的精英。以下是我们了解到的谁有入学优势:ALDC

旁听席 páng tīng xí Visitors' seats; the gallery

玩世不恭 wán shì bù gōng To trifle without respect

筛选 shāi xuǎn To sift; to filter

统治阶级 tǒng zhì jiē jí Ruling class

延续 yán xù To continue; to go on

崇高 chóng gāo Noble; lofty

粗糙钻石 cū cāo zuàn shí Diamonds in the rough

提升 tí shēng To promote

经营 jīng yīng Elite

优势 yōu shì Edge; advantage






Harvard gives advantages to recruited athletes (A’s); legacies (L’s), or the children of Harvard graduates; applicants on the dean’s or director’s interest list (D’s), which often include the children of very wealthy donors and prominent people, mostly white; and the children (C’s) of faculty and staff. ALDCs make up only about 5 percent of applicants but 30 percent of admitted students.


哈佛优先考虑的申请人包括其招募的运动员(A)、哈佛大学毕业生的子女(L);院长或主任兴趣清单上的申请人,通常包括非常富有的捐赠者和知名人士的子女,大多是白人(D);以及教职员工的子女(C)。ALDC申请人之战申请人的5%左右,但是占入学学生的30%。

优先 yōu xiān To have priority

包括 bāo kuò To include; to consist of

招募 zhāo mù To recruit

院长 yuàn zhǎng Director; dean

主任 zhǔ rèn Director; chairman

兴趣 xìng qù Interest

清单 qīng dān List

富有 fù yǒu Wealthy

捐赠者 juān zèng zhě Donors

知名人士 zhī míng rén shì Prominent people

教职员工 jiào zhí yuán gōng Faculty and staff






While being an A.L.D.C. helps — their acceptance rate is about 45 percent, compared with 4.5 to 5 percent for the rest of the pool — it is no guarantee. (One of those rejected despite being a legacy was the judge in the federal case, Allison D. Burroughs. She went to Middlebury College instead.)

有ALDC身份的申请人的入学率约为45%,而其余学生的入学率为4.5%至5%——但拥有ALDC身份也不能保证入学。这起联邦案件的法官艾莉森D巴勒斯(Allison D. Burroughs) 也是被拒绝的校友子女。她后来去了米德尔伯里学院。

身份 shēn fèn Status

入学率 rù xué lǜ Enrollment rate

其余 qí yú The rest; all the other

保证 bǎo zhèng To guarantee

法官 fǎ guān Judge

拒绝 jù jué To reject

校友 xiào yǒu Alumnus; alumna

米德尔伯里 mǐ dé ěr bó lǐ Middlebury






Harvard’s witnesses said it was important to preserve the legacy advantage because it encourages alumni to give their time, expertise and money to the university.


哈佛大学的证人表示,保留毕业生子女优势非常重要,因为它鼓励校友向母校投入时间、专业知识和资金。

证人 zhèng rén Witnesses

保留 bǎo liú To preserve

毕业生子女 bì yè shēng zǐ nǔ Legacy; legacies

投入 tóu rù To invest; to input

专业知识 zhuān yè zhī shi Expertise

资金 zī jīn Money; capital






Students from ‘sparse country’

来自“匮乏乡村”的学生

匮乏乡村 kuì fá xiāng cūn 'Sparse Country'






Every year, Harvard sends out thousands of recruitment letters inviting high school juniors to apply, based in part on their P.S.A.T. scores. Students who take Harvard up on the invitation are about twice as likely as other applicants to be admitted.


每年,哈佛都会发出数千份申请邀请信,邀请高中三年级学生申请该校,部分是基于他们的PSAT分数。哈佛邀请的学生入学率是其他入学申请者的两倍。

邀请信 yāo qǐng xìn Letters of invitation

基于 jī yú Based on; in view of

分数 fēn shù Score; grade

两倍 liǎng bèi Twice; twofold










In “sparse country” — 20 largely rural states where relatively few apply to Harvard — the university drops the P.S.A.T. score cutoff for white students to qualify for an invitation. In 2013, white applicants with P.S.A.T. scores of 1310 were invited to apply from sparse country, compared with 1350 for white and Asian-American women and 1380 for white and Asian-American men outside of sparse country. Black, Hispanic, Native American or other minority students needed an 1100 or better to be invited to apply, regardless of location.


在“匮乏乡村”——20个以农村为主的州,申请哈佛大学的人相对较少——该校不以PSAT分数作为向白人学生发送邀请信的标准。 2013年,在匮乏乡村,白人申请人在PSAT考试中获得1310分便可获得申请,而“匮乏乡村”之外,白人和亚裔美国女性则需获得1350分,白人和亚裔美国男性则需要1380分。无论身处何地,黑人、西班牙裔、美国原住民或其他少数族裔学生都需要1100分或更高才能被邀请申请。

相对 xiāng duì Relatively

标准 biāo zhǔn Standard

获得 huò dé To obtain

无论 wú lùn Regardless of

身处 shēn chù In (some place)

裔 yì Descendants

原住民 yuán zhù mín Indigenous peoples

少数族裔 shǎo shù zú yì Minorities






Effervescent (or reflective) applicants

活跃(或内向)申请人

活跃 huó yuè Effervescent; Active

内向 nèi xiàng Reflective; Introverted






Admissions officers are urged to look for applicants with “unusually appealing personal qualities,” which could include “effervescence, charity, maturity and strength of character.”


招生人员受到鼓励,录取具有“异常吸引人的个人品质”的申请人,其中包括“活跃、仁爱、成熟和个性优势”。

招生人员 zhāo shēng rén yuán Admissions officers

具有 jù yǒu To possess

异常 yì cháng Unusual

吸引 xī yǐn To attract

品质 pǐn zhì Character; qualities

仁爱 rén ài Benevolence

成熟 chéng shú Maturity

个性 gè xìng Individual character






Outgoing students seemed to benefit most, according to court documents and testimony.

根据法庭文件和证词,外向的学生似乎受益最多。

根据 gēn jù According to

外向 wài xiàng Outgoing; extroverted

似乎 sì hū Seemed to

受益 shòu yì To benefit (from)






But new guidelines issued days before the trial began last month caution officers that character traits “not always synonymous with extroversion” should be valued, and that applicants who seem to be “particularly reflective, insightful and/or dedicated” should receive high personal ratings as well.


但是该校在上个月审判开始前几天发布的新指南警告招生官员,应该重视并不总是等同于外向性格的性格特征,并且那些似乎“特别具有反思力、洞察力和(或)专注力”的申请人也应该获得较高个人评定。

发布 fā bù To issue; to release

指南 zhǐ nán Guidelines; guidebook

警告 jǐng gào To warn

重视 zhòng shì To value

等同于 děng tóng yú To be synonymous with

特征 tè zhēng Traits

反思力 fǎn sī lǐ Reflective; introspective powers

洞察力 dòng chá lì Insightful

专注 zhuān zhù Devoted; concentrated; dedicated

评定 píng dìng To evaluate






At trial, Harvard did not dispute that Asian-American applicants received, on average, lower personal ratings than applicants of any other race or ethnicity. The plaintiffs said this was evidence of Harvard’s stereotyping of Asian-Americans as industrious but dull. Harvard said it was not the result of discrimination; rather, it was partly because of weaker support from high school teachers and guidance counselors.


在审判中,哈佛并未否认亚裔申请人收到的平均个人评定低于任何其他种族或族裔申请人。原告表示,这证明哈佛对亚裔美国人的刻板印象是勤劳而沉闷。哈佛说,这不是歧视的结果;相反,部分原因是高中教师和辅导员对这些申请人的支持较弱。

平均 píng jūn Average

低于 dī yú To be lower than

任何 rèn hé Any

种族 zhǒng zú Race; ethnicity

原告 yuán gào The plaintiffs

证明 zhèng míng To prove

刻板印象 kè bǎn yìn xiàng Stereotype

勤劳 qín láo Industrious

沉闷 chén mèn Dull

相反 xiāng fǎn On the contrary

原因 yuán yīn Reason

辅导员 fǔ dǎo yuán Counselors; advisors






“We do not endorse, we abhor stereotypical comments,” the dean of the Harvard admissions office, William Fitzsimmons, testified.“


我们不认可这一点,我们厌恶陈规定型的评论,”哈佛大学招生办公室主任威廉·菲茨西蒙斯(William Fitzsimmons)作证说。

认可 rèn kě To approve; to endorse

厌恶 yàn wù To abhor

陈贵 chén guī Outmoded conventions

定型 dìng xíng Stereotypical

评论 píng lùn Comments






Those with a compelling life story, who have overcome obstacles

有令人信服的人生故事的人,克服了某些障碍的人

令 lìng To cause; to make

信服 xìn fú To have confidence in

故事 gù shi Story

克服 kè fú To overcome

某些 mǒu xiē Certain; some

障碍 zhàng ài Obstacles






Court documents, including guidelines issued to admissions officers, repeatedly showed clear advantages given to poor students and those from disadvantaged circumstances. But stories of besting challenges of other kinds also gave applicants an edge.


法院文件,包括发给招生人员的指导方针,一再显示对贫困学生和弱势群体给予明显优势。但是,其他类型的最佳挑战故事也能给申请人带来优势。

方针 fāng zhēn Guidelines

一再 yí zài Repeatedly

显示 xiǎn shì To show; to illustrate

弱势群体 ruò shì qún tǐ Disadvantaged social groups

给予 jǐ yǔ To give

明显 míng xiǎn Clear; obvious

类型 lèi xíng Type; category

挑战 tiǎo zhàn Challenges






In his application, Thang Diep, a Harvard senior who came from Vietnam as a child, talked about being bullied for his accented English, and how affirming it was when a Harvard professor was the first teacher to pronounce his name correctly.


在申请中,小时候从越南来到美国的哈佛大学大四学生叶胜(Thang Diep,音)谈到自己因为英语有口音被欺负,以及一位哈佛教授成了第一个正确念出他名字的老师时,他感到多受鼓舞。

大四学生 dà sì xué shēng Senior student

谈到 tán dào To talk about

口音 kǒu yīn Accent

欺负 qī fu To bully

正确 zhèng què Correctly

鼓舞 gǔ wǔ Heartening






Sarah Cole appeared in court to testify that as a black student from Kansas City, Mo., she had worked hard to get a scholarship to a prestigious private college-prep school, but suffered socially for it. She said white teachers told her she was not smart enough to excel, and customers at her job laughed at her for wearing a Stanford T-shirt. She graduated from Harvard College in 2016, and is now a public school teacher.


出庭作证的莎拉·科尔(Sarah Cole)是一名来自密苏里州堪萨斯城的黑人学生,她曾努力获得一所著名私立大学预科学校的奖学金,却因此在社交方面受到影响。她说,白人老师告诉她,她不够聪明,无法出类拔萃,在她工作的地方,客户因为她穿斯坦福大学的T恤而嘲笑她。她于2016年毕业于哈佛大学,现在是一名公立学校教师。

出庭作证 chū tíng zuò zhèng To appear in court as a witness

密苏里州 mì sū lǐ zhōu Missouri

堪萨斯城 kān sà sī chéng Kansas City

私立 sī lì Private

预科学校 yù kē xué xiào Preparatory school

奖学金 jiǎng xué jīn Scholarship

社交 shè jiāo Interaction; social contact

出类拔萃 chū lèi bá cuì To excel; to stand out

斯坦福 sī tǎn fú Stanford

嘲笑 cháo xiào To laugh at; to ridicule

公立学校 gōng lì xué xiào Public school






Mr. Fitzsimmons, the admissions dean, said that a candidate’s race was given weight only if it was reflective of life experience, such as “the fact that they had overcome and surmounted these kinds of obstacles.”


招生主任菲茨西蒙斯说,申请人的种族只在反映其人生经历时才会被考虑,比如“他们克服并解决了那些类型的困难”。

经历 jīng lì Experience

考虑 kǎo lǜ To consider; to take into account






And Mr. Fitzsimmons, whose parents had run a gas station, spoke of how he had applied to Harvard, hoping to be the first person in his family to go to college. He got in.


菲茨西蒙斯的父母是一家加油站的老板,他说自己当初申请哈佛时,在申请信中写道,希望自己是家族中第一个上大学的人。他被录取了。

加油站 jiā yóu zhàn Gas station

家族 jiā zú Family; clan





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